The creation of the Dutch Republic and the establishment of the Dutch East India Company ushered in an age of excessive wealth during the 16th and 17th centuries. During that time, artistic endeavors reach their peak and the frames of this period were marked by their departure from the opulence of gold leaf frames being produced in France and Italy. Focusing instead on linear simplicity and earthier tones, Dutch frames drew their inspiration from architectural elements, interior design and furniture and became known for their signature deep antique umber black tones.