Long exposure to Muslim influences and the import of Byzantine and Carolingian ivories in the 13th century led to a unique mixture of abstract ornamentation, heraldic beast medallions and scrolled decoration reminiscent of French manuscript illuminations. They showcased Spain’s inclination towards opulence and the dramatic, establishing flamboyant characteristics that remained the core of Spanish design. Over the following centuries, frames began to evolve and incorporate stylistic elements of neighboring countries. Despite the impact of outside influences, Spanish frames continued to maintain their own lavishness, distinctiveness and personality.